ES6
Learn Modern JavaScript!
Part 1

ES6 Learn Modern JavaScript! Part 1

Zahab kakar's photo
Zahab kakar

Published on Aug 10, 2021

6 min read

Subscribe to my newsletter and never miss my upcoming articles

Let's start with a simple introduction to ES6.

ES6 Stands for ECMAScript 6 which is a base language this means that JavaScript is based on ES.

ES6 or ECMA Script 2015 introduced by ECMA organisation which present modern and essential JavaScript feature.

Enough theories! Let's learn ES6.

Part 1 contains the explanation of the given topics.

  • Var/ Let /Const

I briefly explained these three topics because I have already written about them, if you think you need to know more, I recommend you the read my article about Let/Var/Const. here

  • Objects

  • this

  • Arrow Functions

  • Array.map()

Var

Var is one of the JavaScript variable keywords with is scoped to the function, it means you are able to reassign or re declare it.

Let

Let was introduced by ES6, because the var keyword was not scoped to the block where it was defined, therefore, the let keyword is used where the variable should be scoped within the block where it is defined.

Const

cont is similar to let ,however, you can not the reassign the const value.

Objects

You may know that an object is a set of key value pairs, I am going to explain object concept in the below example.

Here I defined an object using cont keyword called myObject. I added a few key pairs, the first one is course and we set it to a string and the second one is a function. When we have a function inside an object, we call that function as a method.

const myObject = 
{
course : "ES6",
learn : function() {}
};

In ES6 we have a clear and a simpler syntax to define a function inside an object. I defined another function called study, however, here I don't need to type a colon or fuction keyword, just a set of parenthesis and curly braces. Finally we have an object with three members, one property and two methods. Let's discuss about how to access these members.

const myObject = 
{
course : "ES6",
learn : function() {},
study() {}
};

Maybe you are familiar with dot notation method, where you can access the key value pairs of an object, for example myObject.learn(); . We also have another method to access the members of an object using bracket notation.

const myObject = 
{
course : "ES6",
learn : function() {},
study() {}
};

myObject.course;

myObject['course'] = "JavaScript";

The reason for using the bracket method is that, some times we don't know what property or method we are going to access. Let me explain it

Image target is an input field in a form and based on the user value we are going to access the member inside our object. So we have to pass the target inside the bracket and if its an input field we will have the value of "target.value".

This is what we call dynamically access of a property or a method inside an object.

const myObject = 
{
course : "ES6",
learn : function() {},
study() {}
};

myObject.course;

const target = "course";

myObject[target.value] = "JavaScript";

this

this is a special keyword in JavaScript, the problem with this is that it always confuse the JS developers because it doesn't behave the same as the this in other programming languages, it always return a reference to the current object.

here I have an object, the function inside this object is learn, let's console.log(this)to see what is this ? let's call myObject.learn().

const myObject = 
{
course : "ES6",
learn() {
console.log(this)
},
};

myObject.learn();

Here is the console result!, you see that this is returning the reference of the object.

1.jpg

However, here we have a weird point in JavaScript, this (this) do not always work that way. Let's see what I mean!

I defined a variable called learn using var keyword and set it to myObject.learn. You see that I didn't keep parenthesis in front of learn, here the learn which is before the = sign is the function. Let's console.log(learn).

const myObject = 
{
course : "ES6",
learn() {
console.log(this);
},
};

myObject.learn();

const learn = myObject.learn;

console.log(learn);

Here is the console result, you can see that the function is displayed.

2.jpg

Now if I call the learn function I will get undefined instead of getting reference of the object, this is because this behave differently.

The value of this depends on how you call the function, if you call the function as an object method ( myObject.learn() ),it always give the reference of the object, however, if you call it outside of the object( learn() ), it gives global variable which is window. Here instead of window object, I got undefined, that is because the restrict mode is enabled by default.

restricted mode is used to execute JS code in a protective way.

1.jpg

How to solve this?

Here you should know that the JavaScript functions are object, here after my learn i selected the bind method and I pass myObject, this will return a new reference of my object. With bind method you can set the value of this permanently.

const myObject = 
{
course : "ES6",
learn() {
console.log(this);
},
};

myObject.learn();

const learn = myObject.learn.bind(myObject);

console.log(learn);

Arrow Functions

ES6 introduced more cleaner and proper method for declaring function, let's compare these two functions. I rewrite the function called square in an arrow function method. To convert a JavaScript function to an arrow function method, you need to remove the function keyword and after the parenthesis we need a (=>), if there is no parameters for the function, just add an empty parenthesis. If the return is just a single line, you can remove the return and curly braces. You can read the arrow function as number goes to number times number.

// Normal function
const square = function(number){

return number * number;

}

//Arrow function
const square = number=> number * number;

Array.map()

ES6 introduced a new method called map, its used to render a list of items. Let's discuss how to use map method.

Here I have an array called courses with four items, now let's imagine I need a sentence "I learned {courses}" for each item. We call map method for this array and we have to use a callback function, this means that for each item in my array, map method calls this function. It takes each item of this array and return a new item. So, we have a function takes a course and return a new string like this ( "I learned " + color ). This method will return a new array, so let's defined it learnedCourses

const courses = ['PHP', 'Python', 'JS', 'Node'];
const learnedCourses = courses.map(function(course){
return 
' I learned '+ course;

})

Let's make this code more clear!

I converted the function to an arrow function.

  • Remove the function keyword.

  • If one parameter, you can remove parenthesis.

  • put (=>) after parameter.

  • We have only a single line of code, so remove curly braces and return.

const courses = ['PHP', 'Python', 'JS', 'Node'];
const learnedCourses = courses.map(course => ' I learned '+ course )

Let's discus about template string here, I want to change the single line of code. In ES6 instead of using single and double quotes, you can use { ` }character. Let's define it and in middle we can render course dynamically. Add a $ and curly braces, and inside the braces, that is the argument placeholder, whatever you put inside, it will be rendered dynamically, In this case course will be placed. This is what we call template literal.

const courses = ['PHP', 'Python', 'JS', 'Node'];
const learnedCourses = courses.map(course =>`I learned ${couse}`)

That's all for part 1 🎉.

Let's connect on Twitter Twitter

I hope you find this useful 👋 :)

 
Share this